Exams Regulations

(1) BRINGING IN FOREIGN MATERIAL
Where a candidate brings into the examination hall foreign or unauthorized material,including notes,textbooks,magazine,journal or any other printed material,which are intended to give the candidate undue advantage, the result of the candidate in the subject invo;lved shall be cancelled.

(2) COLLUSION

  •  Where a candidate is caught during an examination passing notes for help,receiving or giving assistance or colluding in any manner with another person or persons,the candidate's result in the subject involved shall be cancelled.
  •  Where cases of cheating/collution are detected on the scripts,the subject results of the candidates involved shall be cancelled.

(3) IMPERSONATION
Where a person is caught impersonating a candidate:

  • The result of the candidate in the paper involved shall be cancelled;
  • The candidate being impersonated and the impersonator (if he is a prospective candidate) shall be barred from taking any examination conducted by the institute for a period not exceeding three (3) years. In addition, both may be handed over to the police for prosecution.

(4) LEAKAGE

  •  Where cases of leakage or foreknowledge of a question paper is established in a centre/subject, the result of candidates involved shall be cancelled.
  • In addition, to (a) above, where it is established that the supervisor and/or invigilators condoned,connived with or encouraged the leakage, the centre shall be  de-recognised for a period not exceeding three (3) years. The supervisor and\ or invigilator shall be reported to his employers for appropriate action.

(5) MASS CHEATING
Where there are established cases of mass cheating or collution in a centre/paper

  •  the results of the candidates for the paper involved shall be cancelled; and
  •  the centre shall be closed down for a period not exceeding three (3) years.

(6) INSULT ON SUPERVISORS/INVIGILATORS/EXAMININERS/MODERATORS
When a candidate insults a supervisor/invigilator, an examiner/moderator, or an official of the institute in the lawful performance of his duties, inside or outside the examination hall, or in any other way disturbs the conduct of the examination, subject result of the candidate shall be cancelled.

(7) ASSAULT ON SUPERVISORS/INVIGILATORS/EXAMINERS/MODERATORS
Where a candidate assualts a supervisor/invigilator, an examiner/moderator, or official of the institute in the lawful performance of his duties

  •  the subject result of the candidate shall be cancelled;
  • the candidate shall be barred from taking any examination, conducted by the institute for a period not exceeding three (3) years.
  • The candidate may be handed over to the police for further investigation and prosecution.

(8) AUTHORITY FOR ENFORCING RULES AND REGULATIONS
Decisions on cases of irregularities shall rest with the Education and Programmes Committee. Appeals against the decisions of the Committee shall be decided by the Council of the institute.

(9) NEW CASES
As new cases arise which are not covered by the above rules, the Education and Programmes Committee shall take appropriate action.

(10) REVIEW
These rules shall be subject to review as and when necessary.

Banking Terms

EXCEPTIONS TO BANK’S DUTY OF SECRECY

  1. Where the customer has given his express or implied consent for the disclosure for example by inviting a third party to apply to the Bank for a banker’s reference.
  2. Where the Bank of Ghana requires, disclosure for example when a particular bank customer is under investigation by the Bank of Ghana.  

 

DUTIES OF A CUSTOMER

  1.  To pay reasonable interest and commission and other charges for banking services
  2. To inform the Bank of any known forgeries on the account – Greenwood Vrs. Martins Bank Ltd. (1933).
  3. To repay any overdraft on demand.

 

PRIMARY MARKET

  • Deals in new securities and also involves conventional lending and borrowing activities (on a secured or unsecured basis)
  • Issues short-term securities bought or sold for immediate delivery
  • Exchange of funds for financial claim
  • Funds raised through Initial Purchase Orders (IPOs) and goes directly to the Company whose shares have been floated. 

 

•What is E-Banking:
•An automated delivery of new and traditional banking products and services directly to customers through electronic, interactive communication channels.
•What is E-Banking:
•An automated delivery of new and traditional banking products and services directly to customers through electronic, interactive communication channels.
•What is E-Banking:
•An automated delivery of new and traditional banking products and services directly to customers through electronic, interactive communication channels.
•What is E-Banking:
•An automated delivery of new and traditional banking products and services directly to customers through electronic, interactive communication channels.

E-Banking includes the systems that enable financial institution customers, individuals or businesses, to access accounts, transact business, or obtain information on financial products and services through a public or private network, including the internet

 

 

 

•The risks and challenges associated with I.T. are also applicable to E-Banking.  The peculiar risks of e-banking are accentuated by the internet where customers and fraudsters can operate the systems from any part of the globe-outside the reach of the financial institution and remain largely anonymous.
 
•E-Banking involves services offered by Banks to their private and business customers using computerized support to record, process and transport data automatically or without vouchers.
 
 
 
 
 

 

BANK’S DUTY OF SECRECY

  • The Bank’s duty of secrecy and confidentiality is central to the maintenance of confidence in the financial system.  According to the Banking Act 2004 there are a number of situations under which the Bank’s duty of secrecy is suspended.
  • The following are exceptions to the secrecy rule in Ghana.

 

EXCEPTIONS TO BANK’S DUTY OF SECRECY

  1. Under the Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Law, the Bank is obliged to report even strong suspicious of unlawful activities on an account to the Financial Intelligence Centre.
  2. The Borrowers and Lenders Act also permit the Bank to disclose details of non-performing customers accounts to designated outfits prescribed by the Central Banks.

EXCEPTIONS TO BANK’S DUTY OF SECRECY

  1. Where there is a public duty to disclose, for example if the Bank is aware that the customer’s transactions are damaging to the national interest (such as trading with the enemy in time of war) or e.g. when the Bank knows of a fraud involving the customer being investigated.
  2. When the interest of the Bank requires disclosure, e.g. when filing a WRIT in court against the customer, especially for the recovery of unpaid loans or charges
•1 Enormous risk challenges e.g. breach of systems, PINS and ID instruments (cloning)
•2. Requirement for effective back-up systems and controls
•3. Fraudsters evolving new schemes to outwit controls in e-banking facilities
•4. Anonymity of some applications fostering the commission of crimes around the globe e.g. internet-based payments

FINANCIAL MARKETS

Financial Markets in Ghana are classified into two broad areas namely:

  1. The Capital Market
  2. The Money Market

The Money Market is essentially a market for short term funds, i.e. sale and purchase of securities with a maturity of less than one year; with the Commercial Banks, Central Bank and Discount Houses being the major players.

DUTIES OF A CUSTOMER

  1. To exercise reasonable care when drawing his cheques, to help prevent alteration, fraud and forgery so that the bank will not be misled-London Joint Stock Bank Vrs. Mac-Millan and Arthur (1918).
  2. To go to his bankers when he requires payment. It is not incumbent on the Bank to seek out the customer.

 

CAPITAL MARKET

This is a market for relatively long term funding.  Active players in this domain are the Stock Exchange, the Pension Funds and the Mortgage Institutions.  The major characteristics of this market are;

  1. Long-Term Funding, usually over one year
  2. Debt and Equity are traded
  3. Focuses on Secondary Market
  4. Higher Returns
  5. Higher Risks
•The risks and challenges associated with I.T. are also applicable to E-Banking.  The peculiar risks of e-banking are accentuated by the internet where customers and fraudsters can operate the systems from any part of the globe-outside the reach of the financial institution and remain largely anonymous.
•To be continued
 

SECONDARY MARKET

The trading of existing securities issued by companies and government organisations in order to raise long-term funds is termed secondary market activity.

These activities are carried out on a Stock Exchange.  Trading of existing securities on the Stock Exchange therefore, constitutes secondary market activities.  

E-Banking includes the systems that enable financial institution customers, individuals or businesses, to access accounts, transact business, or obtain information on financial products and services through a public or private network, including the internet

 

 

•E-Banking involves services offered by Banks to their private and business customers using computerized support to record, process and transport data automatically or without vouchers. 
•1. Cost reduction in banking services due to mass usage – cheaper and convenient
•2. Less reliance on physical branch networks for service delivery – released capital that would otherwise be tied up in brick and mortar
•3. Around the clock usage of systems – 24/7
•4. Worldwide application of some e-banking products and services
•5. Less use of cheques and paper-based instruments (environmental concerns eased).

EXCEPTIONS TO BANK’S DUTY OF SECRECY

  1. Where a law or court of competent jurisdiction requires disclosure for example; if a customer’s bank account is the subject of a dispute at the Court.
  2.  In Ghana, under the laws establishing the SFO (now EOCO), and the Narcotics Control Act, the Bank is obliged to disclose information about a customer’s account where warranted by these institutions.  The request must be in writing and addressed to the Bank.

 

Get in touch

  • East Legon on the Trinity College Road
  • 0302 541 309 / 0302 541 308
  • 0302 541 614
  • info@cibgh.org